Credit card issuers use a variety of methods to totalize transactions. The three most common methods are “pull,” “push,” and “near-field communication.”
pull: A merchant first pulls their own data from the card reader. This includes the amount charged to the customer, as well as any fees that were assessed.
push: A merchant sends all of their data to the credit card company in one go, immediately after completing the transaction. This method is typically used for larger transactions where speed is of the essence.
Near-field communication: This technology uses a short range between the card reader and the credit card terminal to transmit data. This means that there is no need for a merchant to pull their own data. Instead, they simply send it directly to the credit card company.
Each method has its own benefits and drawbacks. pulling data can be faster, but it can also lead to inaccuracies if the data is not accurate at first glance. push mode is more reliable, but it can also be more expensive for merchants. Near-field communication is usually less expensive than either of the other two methods,
Totalization is the process of reconciling a financial institution's accounts receivable with its accounts payable. It's important for two reasons: to ensure that customers receive the money they're owed and to prevent banks from overspending on expenses.
When a customer pays for something with a credit card, the credit card company notifies the bank that issued the credit card. The bank then credits the customer's account and sends a bill to the customer. The bank also records this as an expense in its books.
To make sure that the customer gets their money, the bank must match all outstanding bills against all outstanding receivables. This is where totalization comes in. Totalization reconciles all of these accounts and ensures that each party receives what it's owed.
There are three main types of totalization systems: manual, automated, and bilateral. Manual totalization systems involve humans who review each individual bill and reconcile it against the corresponding receivable. This can be time-consuming and prone to human error. Automated totalization systems use software to do this work, but they can be less accurate because they don't always catch discrepancies between bills.
Credit card companies use a totalization process to calculate the amount due on a purchase. The credit card company will first add up all of the amounts owed on the account, including outstanding balance and any late payments or finance charges. This figure is called the current liability. Next, the total liability is divided by the account's current outstanding balance to get a percentage figure. This percentage is then multiplied by the purchase price to get the total amount due on the purchase.
Credit card totalization is a process where credit card companies calculate and compile the outstanding balances on all of a customer's cards. This information is used to determine a customer's creditworthiness and can also impact a customer's borrowing capacity. There are different types of totalization systems, but all of them use some form of averaging or aggregation to come up with a final balance.
The three main types of totalization systems are: single source, cross-border, and bilateral. In single source systems, such as VisaNet, each participating bank maintains its own database of account information. This system is typically used for transactions between individual customers and their banks. Cross-border systems work differently. Here, the data is collected by a central authority and then distributed to the participating banks. This system is used mainly for transactions between businesses and their banks. Bilateral systems are the most common type and involve two or more credit card companies working together to collect data from their customers.